On This Day

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#21 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Mon Apr 17, 2017 2:04 pm

On This Day April 17

Born This Day

Nikita Khrushchev, 1960. Nikita Khrushchev
Soviet Premier Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev, born this day in 1894, guided the U.S.S.R. (and the communist movement) out from under the shadow of former premier Joseph Stalin and into closer orbit with the capitalist West.

On This Day

1982: Canada Act proclaimed
The Canada Act, also known as the Constitution Act, took effect on this day in 1982, establishing certain individual rights, preserving parliamentary supremacy, and making Canada a wholly independent, fully sovereign state.
2014: Finland Colombian novelist Gabriel Garc�a Márquez—winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature and widely considered one of the greatest writers of the 20th century—died in Mexico City.
2003: Finland Anneli Jäätteenmäki was sworn in as prime minister of Finland, which thereby became the second country (after New Zealand) to install a woman as head of both state and government.
1975: Pol PotCambodia's ruling Lon Nol government collapsed, and the communist forces of the Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, entered Phnom Penh and forcibly dispersed its citizenry into rural areas.
1961: Fidel Castro in a Cuban telecast, May 27, 1960.Cuban leader Fidel Castro's forces repelled the Bay of Pigs invasion, which was led by recent Cuban exiles and financed by the U.S. government during the Cold War.
1956: Cominform, the international Communist Information Bureau founded in 1947, was disbanded as part of a Soviet program of reconciliation with Yugoslavia.
1951: American baseball player Mickey Mantle made his MLB debut, as an outfielder for the New York Yankees.
1895: Shunpanrou Hall, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi prefecture, Honshu, Japan. The Treaty of Shimonoseki concluded the first Sino-Japanese War, which ended in China's defeat.
1790: Benjamin FranklinAmerican printer, publisher, author, inventor, scientist, and diplomat Benjamin Franklin, who was one of the foremost of the Founding Fathers, died.
1521: Martin Luther, oil on wood by Lucas Cranach the Elder.Martin Luther appeared before the Diet of Worms to defend his ideas on church reform.
1194: Richard I�Richard I (the Lionheart) was crowned king of England for the second time, after earlier surrendering his kingdom to the Holy Roman emperor Henry VI.
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#22 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Tue Apr 18, 2017 1:03 pm

April 18

310 St. Eusebius of Vercelli begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
1521 Martin Luther confronts the emperor Charles V, refusing to retract the views which led to his excommunication.
1676 Sudbury, Massachusetts is attacked by Indians.
1775 American revolutionaries Paul Revere and William Dawes ride though the towns of Massachusetts warning that "the British are coming."
1791 National Guardsmen prevent Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.
1818 A regiment of Indians and blacks is defeated at the Battle of Suwannee, in Florida, ending the First Seminole War.
1834 William Lamb becomes prime minister of England.
1838 The Wilkes' expedition to the South Pole sets sail.
1847 U.S. forces defeat Mexicans at Cerro Gordo in one of the bloodiest battle of the Mexican-American War.
1853 The first train in Asia begins running from Bombay to Tanna.
1861 Colonel Robert E. Lee turns down an offer to command the Union armies.
1895 The First Sino-Japanese War ends.
1906 A massive earthquake hits San Francisco, measuring 8.25 on the Richter scale.
1923 Yankee Stadium opens with Babe Ruth hitting a three-run homer as the Yankees beat the Red Sox 4-1.
1937 Leon Trotsky calls for the overthrow of Soviet leader Josef Stalin.
1942 James H. Doolittle bombs Tokyo and other Japanese cities.
1943 Traveling in a bomber, Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the mastermind of the attack on Pearl Harbor, is shot down by American P-38 fighters.
1946 The League of Nations dissolves.
1949 The Republic of Ireland withdraws from British Commonwealth.
1950 The first transatlantic jet passenger trip is completed.
1954 Colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser seizes power in Egypt.
1978 The U.S. Senate approves the transfer of the Panama Canal to Panama.
1980 Zimbabwe's (Rhodesia) formal independence from Britain is proclaimed.
1983 A suicide bomber kills U.S. Marines at the U.S. Embassy in Lebanon.
Born on April 18
1480 Lucretia Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI and a patron of the arts.
1817 George Henry Lewes, philosophical writer.
1857 Clarence S. Darrow, lawyer.
1864 Richard Harding Davis, journalist.
1918 Clifton Keith Hillegass, founder of the study guides known as Cliff's Notes.
1940 Ed Garvey, labor leader.

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#23 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Wed Apr 19, 2017 12:25 pm

April 19

1539 Emperor Charles V reaches a truce with German Protestants at Frankfurt, Germany.
1689 Residents of Boston oust their governor, Edmond Andros.
1764 The English Parliament bans the American colonies from printing paper money.
1775 The American Revolution begins as fighting breaks out at Lexington, Massachusetts.
1782 The Netherlands recognizes the United States.
1794 Tadeusz Kosciuszko forces the Russians out of Warsaw.
1802 The Spanish reopen New Orleans port to American merchants.
1824 English poet Lord George Gordon Byron dies of malaria at age 36 while aiding Greek independence.
1861 The Baltimore riots result in four Union soldiers and nine civilians killed.
1861 President Abraham Lincoln orders a blockade of Confederate ports.
1880 The Times war correspondent telephones a report of the Battle of Ahmed Khel, the first time news is sent from a field of battle in this manner.
1927 In China, Hankow communists declare war on Chiang Kai-shek.
1934 Shirley Temple appears in her first movie.
1938 General Francisco Franco declares victory in the Spanish Civil War.
1939 Connecticut finally approves the Bill of Rights.
1943 The Warsaw Ghetto uprising against Nazi rule begins.
1960 Baseball uniforms begin displaying player's names on their backs.
1971 Russia launches its first Salyut space station.
1977 Alex Haley receives a special Pulitzer Prize for his book Roots.
1982 NASA names Sally Ride to be the first woman astronaut.
1989 The battleship USS Iowa's number 2 turret explodes, killing sailors.
1993 The FBI ends a 51-day siege by storming the Branch Davidian religious cult headquarters in Waco, Texas.
1995 A truck bomb explodes in front of the federal building in Oklahoma City, killing 168 people.
Born on April 19
1666 Sarah Kemble Knight, diarist.
1721 Roger Sherman, signer of the Declaration of Independence.
1832 Lucretia Rudolph, President James A. Garfield's first lady.
1877 Ole Evinrude, inventor of the first successful outboard motor.
1900 Richard Hughes, English novelist and playwright (A High Wind in Jamaica).
1903 Eliot Ness, Treasury agent during Prohibition.
1905 Tom Hopkinson, British writer.
1912 Glenn T. Seaborg, physicist.
1933 Etheridge Knight, poet.

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#24 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Thu Apr 20, 2017 11:37 am

April 20

1139 The Second Lateran Council opens in Rome.
1657 English Admiral Robert Blake fights his last battle when he destroys the Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.
1769 Ottawa Chief Pontiac is murdered by an Indian in Cahokia.
1770 Captain Cook discovers Australia.
1775 British troops begin the siege of Boston.
1792 France declares war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia.
1809 Napoleon Bonaparte defeats Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria.
1836 The Territory of Wisconsin is created.
1841 Edgar Allen Poe's first detective story is published.
1861 Robert E. Lee resigns from the U.S. Army.
1879 The first mobile home (horse-drawn) is used in a journey from London to Cyprus.
1916 The first National League game is played at Chicago's Wrigley Field, then known as Weeghman Park. The park was renamed Cubs Park in 1920 and Wrigley Field, for the Chicago Cubs owner, in 1926.
1919 The Polish Army captures Vilno, Lithuania from the Soviets.
1940 The first electron microscope is demonstrated.
1942 Pierre Laval, the premier of Vichy France, in a radio broadcast, establishes a policy of "true reconciliation with Germany."
1945 Soviet troops begin their attack on Berlin.
1951 General Douglas MacArthur addresses a joint session of Congress after being relieved by President Harry Truman.
1953 Operation Little Switch begins in Korea, the exchange of sick and wounded prisoners of war.
1962 The New Orleans Citizens Committee gives free one-way ride to blacks to move North.
1967 U.S. planes bomb Haiphong for first time during the Vietnam War.
1999 Two students enter Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado and open fire with multiple firearms, killing 13 students and teachers, wounding 25 and eventually shooting themselves.

Born on April 20
121 Marcus Aurelius, 16th Roman emperor, philosopher.
1745 Philippe Pinel, founder of psychiatry.
1807 Aloysius Bertrand ("Gaspard de la Nuit"), French poet.
1808 Louis-Napoleon (Napoleon III), emperor of France.
1850 Daniel Chester French, sculptor.
1889 Adolf Hitler, Fascist dictator of Nazi Germany (1933-1945).
1893 Harold Lloyd, film comedian.
1893 Joan Miró, Spanish painter.
1927 Alex Muller, Nobel Prize-winning physicist.
1942 Peter Shane, AKA Cruncher Pete, McShane of TSBT, BOINC enthusiest.

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#25 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Fri Apr 21, 2017 11:57 am

April 21

753 BC Traditional date of the foundation of Rome.
43 BC Marcus Antonius is defeated by Octavian near Modena, Italy.
1526 Mongol Emperor Babur annihilates the Indian Army of Ibrahim Lodi.
1649 The Maryland Toleration Act is passed, allowing all people freedom of worship.
1689 William III and Mary II are crowned joint king and queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
1836 General Sam Houston defeats Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto. Texas wins independence from Mexico.
1862 Congress establishes the U.S. Mint.
1865 Abraham Lincoln's funeral train leaves Washington.
1898 The Spanish-American War begins.
1910 Mark Twain dies at the age of 75.
1916 Bill Carlisle, the infamous 'last train robber,' robs a train in Hanna, Wyoming.
1914 U.S. Marines occupy Vera Cruz, Mexico. They will stay six months.
1918 German fighter ace Baron von Richthofen, "The Red Baron," is shot down and killed.
1943 President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces that several Doolittle pilots have been executed by Japanese.
1960 Brasilia becomes the capital of Brazil.
1961 The French army revolts in Algeria.
1966 Pfc. Milton Lee Olive is awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously, for bravery during the Vietnam War.
1975 The last South Vietnam president, Nguyen Van Thieu, resigns.
1995 Federal authorities arrest Timothy McVeigh in connection with the Oklahoma City bombing.

Born on April 21
1782 Friedrich Froebel, founder of kindergarten.
1816 Charlotte Bronte, novelist (Jane Eyre).
1838 John Muir, naturalist.
1849 Oscar Hertwig, embryologist.
1864 Max Weber, German sociologist and political economist.
1909 Rollo May, psychologist.
1912 Marcel Camus, French film director (Black Orpheus).
1923 John Mortimer, British barrister and playwright (Rumpole of the Bailey).
1926 Elizabeth II, queen of England.
1932 Elaine May, comedy writer.

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#26 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Sat Apr 22, 2017 11:08 am

April 22

296 St. Gaius ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
536 St. Agapitus I ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
1500 Pedro Alvarez Cabral discovers Brazil.
1509 Henry VIII ascends to the throne of England upon the death of his father, Henry VII.
1529 Spain and Portugal divide the eastern hemisphere in the Treaty of Saragossa.
1745 The Peace of Fussen is signed.
1792 President George Washington proclaims American neutrality in the war in Europe.
1861 Robert E. Lee is named commander of Virginia forces.
1889 The Oklahoma land rush officially starts at noon as thousands of Americans race for new, unclaimed land.
1898 In the first action of the Spanish-American War, the USS Nashville, takes on a Spanish ship.
1915 At the Second Battle of Ypres, the Germans use poison gas for the first time.
1918 British naval forces attempt to sink block-ships in the German U-boat bases at the Battle of Zeebrugge.
1931 Egypt signs treaty of friendship with Iraq.
1944 Allies launch major attack against the Japanese in Hollandia, New Guinea.
1954 The Senate Army-McCarthy hearings begin. They are broadcast on television.
1955 Congress orders all U.S. coins to bear the motto "In God We Trust."
1976 Barbara Walters becomes the first female nightly news anchor on network television.
1995 In Africa, Rwandan troops kill thousands of Hutu refugees in Kibeho.
Born on April 22
1451 Isabella I of Castile, Queen of Spain, patron of Christopher Columbus.
1707 Henry Fielding, English novelist (Tom Jones).
1724 Immanuel Kant, German philosopher.
1870 Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov), leader of the Bolshevik Revolution (1917) and first head of the U.S.S.R.
1873 Ellen Glasgow, American novelist.
1876 Ole Edvart Rolvaag, novelist (Giants in the Earth).
1899 Vladimir Nabokov, Russian novelist (Lolita).
1904 J. Robert Oppenheimer, physicist, director of the Manhattan Project.
1916 Yehudi Menuhin, violinist.
1918 Robert Wadlow, the world's tallest man (8'11.1").
1922 Charles Mingus, jazz bassist.
1943 Louise Gluck, Pulitzer Prize-winning poet.

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#27 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Mon Apr 24, 2017 12:37 pm

April 24

858 St. Nicholas I begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
1519 Envoys of Montezuma II attend the first Easter mass in Central America.
1547 Charles V's troops defeat the Protestant League of Schmalkalden at the Battle of Muhlberg.
1558 Mary, Queen of Scotland, marries the French dauphin, Francis.
1792 Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle composes "La Marseillaise". It will become France's national anthem.
1800 The Library of Congress is established in Washington, D.C. with a $5,000 allocation.
1805 U.S. Marines attack and capture the town of Derna in Tripoli from the Barbary pirates.
1833 A patent is granted for the first soda fountain.
1877 Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
1884 Otto von Bismarck cables Cape Town, South Africa that it is now a German colony.
1898 Spain declares war on United States, rejecting an ultimatum to withdraw from Cuba.
1915 Turks of the Ottoman Empire begin massacring the Armenian minority in their country.
1916 Irish nationalists launch the Easter Uprising against British occupation.
1944 The first B-29 arrives in China, over the Hump of the Himalayas.
1948 The Berlin airlift begins to relieve the surrounded city.
1953 Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
1961 President John Kennedy accepts "sole responsibility" for the failed invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs.
1968 Leftist students take over Columbia University in protest over the Vietnam War.
1980 A rescue attempt of the U.S. hostages held in Iran fails when a plane collides with a helicopter in the Iranian desert.
1981 The IBM Personal Computer is introduced.
1989 Thousands of Chinese students strike in Beijing for more democratic reforms.
Born on April 24
1620 John Graunt, statistician, founder of demography.
1743 Edmund Cartwright, English parson who invented the power loom.
1766 Robert Bailey Thomas, founder of the Farmer's Almanac.
1769 Arthur Wellesley, general during the Napoleonic Wars, Duke of Wellington.
1815 Anthony Trollope, British novelist.
1856 Henri Philippe Pétain, French Marshall, WWI hero, Nazi collaborator.
1900 Elizabeth Goudge, English author.
1904 Willem de Kooning, abstract impressionist painter.
1905 Robert Penn Warren, novelist, America's first poet laureate.
1906 William Joyce, 'Lord Haw-Haw,' British traitor, Nazi propagandist.

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#28 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Tue Apr 25, 2017 11:10 pm

April 25

1590 The Sultan of Morocco launches a successful attack to capture Timbuktu.
1644 The Ming Chongzhen emperor commits suicide by hanging himself.
1707 At the Battle of Almansa, Franco-Spanish forces defeat the Anglo-Portugese forces.
1719 Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe is published in London.
1792 The guillotine is first used to execute highwayman Nicolas J. Pelletier.
1859 Work begins on the Suez Canal in Egypt.
1862 Admiral David Farragut occupies New Orleans, Louisiana.
1864 After facing defeat in the Red River Campaign, Union General Nathaniel Bank returns to Alexandria, Louisiana.
1867 Tokyo is opened for foreign trade.
1882 French commander Henri Riviere seizes the citadel of Hanoi in Indochina.
1898 The United States declares war on Spain.
1915 Australian and New Zealand troops land at Gallipoli in Turkey.
1925 General Paul von Hindenburg takes office as president of Germany.
1926 In Iran, Reza Khan is crowned Shah and chooses the name "Pahlavi."
1926 Puccini's opera Turandot premiers at La Scala in Milan with Arturo Toscanini conducting.
1938 A seeing eye dog is used for the first time.
1945 U.S. and Soviet forces meet at Torgau, Germany on Elbe River.
1951 After a three day fight against Chinese Communist Forces, the Gloucestershire Regiment is annihilated on "Gloucester Hill," in Korea.
1953 The magazine Nature publishes an article by biologists Francis Crick and James Watson, describing the "double helix" of DNA.
1956 Elvis Presley's "Heartbreak Hotel" goes to number one on the charts.
1959 The St. Lawrence Seaway--linking the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes--opens to shipping.
1960 The first submerged circumnavigation of the Earth is completed by a Triton submarine.
1962 A U.S. Ranger spacecraft crash lands on the Moon.
1971 The country of Bangladesh is established.
1980 President Jimmy Carter tells the American people about the hostage rescue disaster in Iran.
1982 In accordance with the Camp David agreements, Israel completes a withdrawal from the Sinai peninsula.
1990 Violeta Barrios de Chamorro begins a six year term as Nicaragua's president.
Born on April 25
1214 Louis IX, king of France (1226-1270).
1284 Edward II, king of England (1307-1327).
1599 Oliver Cromwell, lord protector of England (1653-1658).
1873 Howard R. Garis, children's writer.
1873 Walter de la Mare, poet and novelist (Memoir of a Midget, Come Hither).
1874 Guglielmo Marconi, Italian physicist, inventor of the radio.
1892 Maud Hart Lovelace, children's author.
1908 Edward R. Murrow, war correspondent and newscaster.
1912 Gladys L. Presley, mother of Elvis Presley.
1914 Ross Lockridge, Jr., novelist (Raintree Country).
1917 Ella Fitzgerald, American singer.

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#29 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Wed Apr 26, 2017 12:18 pm

April 26

757 Stephen II ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
1478 Pazzi conspirators attack Lorenzo and kill Giuliano de' Medici.
1514 Copernicus makes his first observations of Saturn.
1564 William Shakespeare is baptized.
1607 The British establish a colony at Cape Henry, Virginia.
1865 Joseph E. Johnston surrenders the Army of Tennessee to General William T. Sherman.
1915 Second Lieutenant William Rhodes-Moorhouse becomes the first airman to win the Victoria Cross after conducting a successful bombing raid.
1929 The first non-stop flight from England to India is completed.
1931 New York Yankee Lou Gehrig hits a home run but is called out for passing a runner, the mistake ultimately costs him the home run record.
1937 The ancient Basque town of Guernica in northern Spain is bombed by German planes.
1941 The first organ is played at a baseball stadium in Chicago.
1968 Students seize the administration building at Ohio State University.
1983 The Dow Jones Industrial Average breaks 1,200 for first time.
1986 The world's worst nuclear disaster occurs at the Chernobyl power plant in the Soviet Union.
1994 Nelson Mandela wins the presidency in South Africa's first multiracial elections.
Born on April 26
1718 Esek Hopkins, first commodore of the United States Navy.
1785 John James Audubon, artist and naturalist.
1812 Alfred Krupp, German arms merchant.
1822 Frederick Law Olmsted, landscape architect, designed New York's central park.
1875 Syngman Rhee, South Korean statesman.
1893 Anita Loos, novelist and screenwriter (Gentleman Prefer Blondes).
1894 Rudolf Hess, Nazi leader.
1900 Charles Richter, physicist and seismologist.
1914 Bernard Malamud, novelist and short story writer (The Natural).

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#30 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Thu Apr 27, 2017 11:47 am

April 27

Born This Day

Born this day in 1927 was Coretta Scott King—civil rights activist, wife of civil rights movement leader Martin Luther King, Jr., and, after her husband's assassination, the founder of a centre for nonviolent social change.

On This Day

2014: 1987Pope John Paul II was canonized by Pope Benedict XVI.
1960: TogoAfter several years as an autonomous republic in the French Union, the West African country of Togo became independent.
1828: The London Zoo opened in Regent's Park.
1822: Ulysses S. GrantU.S. General Ulysses S. Grant, who commanded the Union armies during the late years (1864-65) of the Civil War and later served as president of the United States (1869-77), was born.
1791: Samuel F.B. Morse, an American painter and the inventor of an electric telegraph and the Morse Code, was born in Charlestown, Massachusetts.
1521: Ferdinand MagellanPortuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan was killed during a fight with inhabitants of Mactan Island, Philippines.
1296: King Edward I of England, seeking suzerainty over the Scots, invaded Scotland and removed the coronation stone of Scone to Westminster, England.

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#31 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Fri Apr 28, 2017 12:05 pm

April 28

357 Constantius II visits Rome for the first time.
1282 Villagers in Palermo lead a revolt against French rule in Sicily.
1635 Virginia Governor John Harvey is accused of treason and removed from office.
1760 French forces besieging Quebec defeat the British in the second Battle on the Plains of Abraham.
1788 Maryland becomes the seventh state to ratify the constitution.
1789 The crew of the HMS Bounty mutinies against Captain William Bligh.
1818 President James Monroe proclaims naval disarmament on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.
1856 Yokut Indians repel an attack on their land by 100 would-be Indian fighters in California.
1902 Revolution breaks out in the Dominican Republic.
1910 The first night air flight is performed by Claude Grahame-White in England.
1916 British declare martial law throughout Ireland.
1919 Les Irvin makes the first jump with an Army Air Corps parachute.
1920 Azerbaijan joins the Soviet Union.
1930 The first organized night baseball game is played in Independence, Kansas.
1932 A yellow fever vaccine for humans is announced.
1945 Benito Mussolini is killed by Italian partisans.
1946 The Allies indict Tojo on 55 counts of war crimes
1947 Norwegian anthropologist Thor Heyerdahl and five others set out in a balsa wood craft known as Kon Tiki to prove that Peruvian Indians could have settled in Polynesia.
1953 French troops evacuate northern Laos.
1965 The U.S. Army and Marines invade the Dominican Republic.
1967 Muhammad Ali refuses induction into the U.S. Army and is stripped of his boxing title.
1969 Charles de Gaulle resigns as president of France.
Born on April 28
1442 Edward IV, king of England (1461-1470, 1471-1483), first king of the House of York.
1758 James Monroe, fifth President of the United States (1817-1825).
1878 Lionel Barrymore, American stage, screen and radio actor.
1892 John Jacob Niles, American folk singer and folklorist.
1898 William Soutar, Scottish poet.
1902 Johan Borgen, Norwegian novelist.
1912 Odette Hallowes, British secret agent.
1926 Harper Lee, Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist (To Kill a Mockingbird).
1930 James Baker III, Cabinet secretary for Presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.
1936 Kenneth White, poet and essayist.
1937 Saddam Hussein, President of Iraq.
1937 Jean Redpath, Scottish folk singer.

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#32 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Sat Apr 29, 2017 1:35 pm

April 29

Born This Day

Japanese Emperor Hirohito, who was born this day in 1901 in Tokyo, ruled his country from 1926 to 1989, a reign that included both Japan's military defeat in World War II and its postwar economic triumphs.

On This Day

2011: Prince William of Wales, second in line to the British throne, married his longtime girlfriend, Catharine Middleton, in a lavish ceremony broadcast to millions of television viewers.
2015: Camden Yards, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.�In what was thought to be the lowest-attended baseball game in MLB history, the Baltimore Orioles defeated the Chicago White Sox, 8–2, in an empty Camden Yards, Baltimore; the game was closed to fans because of rioting in the city following the death of an African American man who was fatally injured while in police custody.
1992: Riots erupted in Los Angeles in response to the verdict of a highly publicized trial of four white Los Angeles police officers who were acquitted of charges related to the 1991 beating of Rodney King, a black motorist who had resisted arrest.
1991: A National Guardsman standing watch in Los Angeles in late April 1992, during rioting that raged in �A tropical cyclone struck Bangladesh, killing an estimated 140,000 people and causing 10 million to lose their homes.
1954: Comedian Jerry Seinfeld, whose television show Seinfeld was a landmark of American pop culture in the late 20th century, was born in Brooklyn, New York.
1945: Roll call of Roma (Gypsy) prisoners at the Dachau concentration camp in Germany.The U.S. Seventh Army liberated tens of thousands of inmates at the Nazi concentration camp in Dachau, Germany.
1936: Orchestral conductor Zubin Mehta was born in Bombay (Mumbai), India.
1916: About 10,000 British troops surrendered to Ottoman Turks at Al-Kut, Iraq, following a five-month siege during World War I.
1899: Duke Ellington.American composer, bandleader, and pianist Duke Ellington, among the most significant figures in jazz history, was born.
1429: Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII in Reims Cathedral.�French national heroine Joan of Arc and her troops entered the besieged city of Orl�ans during the Hundred Years' War.

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#33 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Sun Apr 30, 2017 2:11 pm

April 30

313 Licinius unifies the whole of the eastern Roman Empire under his own rule.
1250 King Louis IX of France is ransomed.
1527 Henry VIII of England and King Francis of France sign the Treaty of Westminster.
1563 All Jews are expelled from France by order of Charles VI.
1725 Spain withdraws from the Quadruple Alliance.
1789 George Washington is inaugurated as the first U.S. president.
1803 The United States doubles in size through the Louisiana Purchase, which was sold by France for $15 million.
1812 Louisiana is admitted into the Union as a state.
1849 Giuseppe Garibaldi, the Italian patriot and guerrilla leader, repulses a French attack on Rome.
1864 Work begins on the Dams along the Red River, which will allow Union General Nathaniel Banks' troops to sail over the rapids above Alexandria, Louisiana.
1930 The Soviet Union proposes a military alliance with France and Great Britain.
1931 The George Washington Bridge, linking New York City and New Jersey, opens.
1943 The British submarine HMS Seraph drops 'the man who never was,' a dead man the British planted with false invasion plans, into the Mediterranean off the coast of Spain.
1945 Adolf Hitler commits suicide in his bunker. Karl Donitz becomes his successor.
1968 U.S. Marines attack a division of North Vietnamese troops in the village of Dai Do.
1970 U.S. troops invade Cambodia to disrupt North Vietnamese Army base areas.
1972 The North Vietnamese launch an invasion of the South.
1973 President Richard Nixon announces the resignation of Harry Robbins Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and other top aides.
1975 North Vietnamese troops enter the Independence Palace of South Vietnam in Saigon ending the Vietnam War.
1980 Terrorists seize the Iranian Embassy in London.
Born on April 30
1777 Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician.
1858 Mary Scott Lord Dimmick, First Lady to President Benjamin Harrison .
1870 Franz Lehár, Hungarian composer (The Merry Widow, The Land of Smiles).
1909 Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands.
1912 Eve Arden (Eunice Quedens), actress.
1933 Willie Nelson, country singer.
1945 Annie Dillard, writer (Pilgrim at Tinker Creek).
1954 Jane Campion, New Zealand film director (The Piano, A Portrait of a Lady).

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#34 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Tue May 02, 2017 12:31 pm

May 2

Biography of the Day

Catherine the Great, who engineered the abdication of her husband, Peter III, to become empress of Russia (1762–96) and one of the most powerful women in history, was born in Prussia this day in 1729.


On this day in 1939, New York Yankee great Lou Gehrig, the "Iron Horse" of American baseball, ended his streak of consecutive games played (2,130), setting a record that stood until 1995, when it was broken by Cal Ripken, Jr.

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2015: Princess Charlotte Elizabeth Diana of Cambridge, the second child of Prince William, duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, duchess of Cambridge, was born in London.
2011: Osama bin Laden—founder of the militant Islamist organization al-Qaeda and mastermind of numerous terrorist attacks, notably the September 11, 2001, attacks—was killed by U.S. forces in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
1997: Tony BlairBritish Labour Party leader Tony Blair became prime minister of the United Kingdom; he was the youngest person to hold the office since 1812.
1946: An attempted prison escape by six inmates at Alcatraz resulted in two days of violent fighting, which became known as the Battle of Alcatraz.
1935: The peasants of Luzon, Philippines, rose up in arms against oppressive land tenancy laws.
1921: Satyajit RayBengali director Satyajit Ray, who brought Indian cinema to world recognition with the Apu Trilogy, was born in Calcutta (Kolkata).
1903: American pediatrician Benjamin Spock—who wrote a number of influential works on child rearing, notably Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care (1946), which sold more than 50 million copies worldwide—was born.
1892: Manfred, Freiherr (baron) von Richthofen.Manfred, Freiherr (baron) von Richthofen (the “Red Baron”), Germany's top aviator and leading ace in World War I, was born in Breslau, Germany (now Wrocław, Poland).
1889: Menilek II of Ethiopia signed the Treaty of Wichale with Italy, granting it territory in northern Ethiopia in exchange for money and weaponry.
1803: the Louisiana PurchaseThe United States purchased the Louisiana Territory from France at a rate of less than three cents per acre for 828,000 square miles (2,144,520 square km), which soon proved to be a tremendous bargain.
1611: the King James BibleThe King James Version of the Bible was first published.
1519: Study of a nude man, sepia drawing by Leonardo da Vinci; in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan.Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci died in Cloux, France.

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#35 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Thu May 04, 2017 12:28 pm

May 4

1471 In England, the Yorkists defeat the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury.
1626 American Indians sell Manhattan Island for $24 in cloth and buttons.
1715 A French manufacturer debuts the first folding umbrella.
1776 Rhode Island declares independence from England.
1795 Thousands of rioters enter jails in Lyons, France, and massacre 99 Jacobin prisoners.
1814 Napoleon Bonaparte disembarks at Portoferraio on the island of Elba in the Mediterranean.
1863 The Battle of Chancellorsville ends when Union Army retreats.
1864 Union General Ulysses S. Grant's forces cross the Rapidan River and meet Robert E. Lee's Confederate army.
1927 A balloon soars over 40,000 feet for the first time.
1930 Mahatma Gandhi is arrested by the British.
1942 The Battle of the Coral Sea commences.
1942 The United States begins food rationing.
1961 13 civil rights activists, dubbed Freedom Riders, begin a bus trip through the South.
1970 Ohio National Guardsmen open fire on student protesters at Kent State University, killing four and wounding nine others.
Born on May 4
1796 Horace Mann, educator and author.
1820 Joseph Whitaker, bookseller and publisher (Whitaker's Almanac)
1825 Thomas Henry Huxley, British biologist.
1827 John Hanning Speke, English explorer.
1874 Frank Conrad, electrical engineer and broadcasting pioneer.
1884 Agnes Fay Morgan, American nutritionist and biochemist.
1928 Thomas Kinsella, Irish poet.
1929 Audrey Hepburn (Edda van Heemstra Hepburn-Ruston), actress, later U.N. special ambassador.
1939 Amos Oz, Israeli novelist (The Black Box, TheThird State).
1949 Graham Swift, British novelist (The Sweet Shop Owner, Out of this World).

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#36 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Fri May 05, 2017 11:58 am

Today in History May 5

1494 Christopher Columbus lands on the island of Jamaica, which he names Santa Gloria.
1814 British attack the American forces at Ft. Ontario, Oswego, New York.
1821 Napoleon Bonaparte dies in exile on the island of St. Helena.
1834 The first mainland railway line opens in Belgium.
1862 Union and Confederate forces clash at the Battle of Williamsburg, part of the Peninsular Campaign.
1862 Mexican forces loyal to Benito Juarez defeat troops sent by Napoleon III in the Battle of Puebla.
1886 A bomb explodes on the fourth day of a workers' strike in Chicago.
1912 Soviet Communist Party newspaper Pravda begins publishing.
1916 U.S. Marines invade the Dominican Republic.
1917 Eugene Jacques Bullard becomes the first African-American aviator when he earns a flying certificate with the French Air Service.
1920 Anarchists Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti are arrested for murder.
1935 American Jesse Owens sets the long jump record.
1942 General Joseph Stilwell learns that the Japanese have cut his railway out of China and is forced to lead his troops into India.
1945 Holland and Denmark are liberated from Nazi control.
1961 Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space.
1965 173rd Airborne Brigade arrives in Bien Hoa-Vung, Vietnam, the first regular U.S. Army unit deployed to that country.
1968 U.S. Air Force planes hit Nhi Ha, South Vietnam in support of attacking infantrymen.
1969 Pulitzer Prize awarded to Norman Mailer for his 'nonfiction novel' Armies of the Night, an account of the 1967 anti-Vietnam War march on the Pentagon.
1987 Congress opens Iran-Contra hearings.
2000 The Sun, Earth, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn align - Earth's moon is also almost in this alignment - leading to Doomsday predictions of massive natural disasters, although such a 'grand confluence' occurs about once in every century.
Born on May 5
1813 Soren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher.
1818 Karl Marx, German philosopher (The Communist Manifesto, Das Kapital).
1830 John B. Stetson, American hat maker.
1861 Peter Cooper Hewitt, electrical engineer, inventor of the mercury-vapor lamp.
1883 Charles Albert "Chief" Bender, baseball player.
1890 Christopher Morley, writer (Kitty Foyle).
1899 Freeman F. Gosden, radio comedy writer and performer (Amos 'n' Andy).
1909 Carlos Baker, biographer.
1943 Michael Palin, actor and screenwriter (Monty Python's Flying Circus).

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#37 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Sat May 06, 2017 12:19 pm

Today in History May 6

1527 German troops begin sacking Rome. Libraries are destroyed, the Pope is captured and thousands are killed.
1529 Babur defeats the Afghan Chiefs in the Battle of Ghaghra, India.
1682 King Louis XIV moves his court to Versailles, France.
1856 U.S. Army troops from Fort Tejon and Fort Miller prepare to ride out to protect Keyesville, California, from Yokut Indian attack.
1861 Arkansas becomes the ninth state to secede from the Union.
1862 Henry David Thoreau dies of tuberculosis at age 44.
1864 In the second day of the Battle of the Wilderness between Union General Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate General Robert E. Lee, Confederate Gen. James Longstreet is wounded by his own men.
1877 Chief Crazy Horse surrenders to U.S. troops in Nebraska. Crazy Horse brought General George Custer to his end.
1937 The dirigible Hindenburg explodes in flames at Lakehurst, New Jersey.
1941 Bob Hope gives his first USO show at California's March Field.
1942 General Jonathan Wainwright surrenders Corregidor to the Japanese.
1944 The Red Army besieges and captures Sevastopol in the Crimea.
1945 Axis Sally makes her final propaganda broadcast to Allied troops.
1954 British runner Roger Bannister breaks the four minute mile.
1960 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1960.
1962 The first nuclear warhead is fired from a Polaris submarine.
1994 The Channel Tunnel linking England to France is officially opened.
Born on May 6
973 Henry II, Holy Roman emperor.
1740 John Penn, signer of the Declaration of Independence.
1758 Maximilien Robespierre, French revolutionary.
1840 Frederick William Stowe, son of Harriet Beecher Stowe.
1856 Robert Edward Peary, arctic explorer and the first man to reach the North Pole.
1856 Sigmund Freud, Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis.
1868 Gaston Leroux, French novelist (The Phantom of the Opera).
1888 Russell Stover, candy manufacturer.
1895 Rudolph Valentino, actor, film icon.
1902 Max Ophuls, film director (La Ronde, Lola Montes).
1915 Orson Welles, actor, director, and writer (Citizen Kane).
1931 Willie Mays, baseball player.
1942 Ariel Dorfman, Chilean writer (Death and the Maiden).

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#38 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Sun May 07, 2017 12:09 pm

Today in History May 7

558 The dome of the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople collapses. Its immediate rebuilding is ordered by Justinian.
1274 The Second Council of Lyons opens in France to regulate the election of the pope.
1429 Joan of Arc breaks the English siege of Orleans.
1525 The German peasants' revolt is crushed by the ruling class and church.
1763 Indian chief Pontiac begins his attack on a British fort in present-day Detroit, Michigan.
1800 Congress divides the Northwest Territory into two parts. The western part will becomes the Indiana Territory and the eastern section remains the Northwest Territory.
1824 Beethoven's "Ninth Symphony" premieres in Vienna.
1847 The American Medical Association is formed in Philadelphia.
1862 Confederate troops strike Union troops at the Battle of Eltham's Landing in Virginia.
1864 The Battle of the Wilderness ends with heavy losses to both sides.
1877 Indian chief Sitting Bull enters Canada with a trail of Indians after the Battle of Little Bighorn.
1915 The German submarine U-20 torpedoes the passenger ship Lusitiania, sinking her in 21 minutes with 1,978 people on board.
1937 The German Condor Legion arrives in Spain to assist Fransico Franco's forces.
1942 In the Battle of the Coral Sea, Japanese and American navies attack each other with carrier-launched warplanes. It is the first time in the history of naval warfare where two fleets fought without seeing each other.Two crucial battles in 1942 marked the turning point of the war in the Pacific.
1943 The last major German strongholds in North Africa--Tunis and Bizerte--fall to Allied forces.
1945 Germany signs an unconditional surrender, effectively ending World War II in Europe.
1952 In Korea, Communist POWs at Koje-do riot against their American captors.
1954 French troops surrender to the Vietminh at Dien Bien Phu.
1958 Howard Johnson sets an aircraft altitude record in F-104.
1960 Leonid Brezhnev becomes president of the Soviet Union.
Born on May 7
1812 Robert Browning, English poet.
1833 Johannes Brahms, German composer.
1840 Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer.
1870 Marcus Loew, film executive, consolidated studios to create MGM.
1892 Josip Broz [Tito], leader of Yugoslavia during after World War II.
1892 Archibald MacLeish, American poet and statesman.
1901 Gary Cooper, film actor (High Noon, Friendly Persuasion).
1909 Edwin Herbert Land, inventor of the Polaroid Land Camera.
1919 Eva (Evita) Perón, first lady of Argentina.
1932 Jenny Joseph, English poet and novelist (The Thinking Heart, The Inland Sea).
1943 Peter Carey, Australian writer (Illywhacker, Oscar and Lucinda).

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#39 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Mon May 08, 2017 12:18 pm

Today in History May 8

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion--Kentishmen revolt against King Henry VI.
1541 Hernando de Soto discovers the Mississippi River which he calls Rio de Espiritu Santo.
1559 An act of supremacy defines Queen Elizabeth I as the supreme governor of the church of England.
1794 The United States Post Office is established.
1846 The first major battle of the Mexican War is fought at Palo Alto, Texas.
1862 General 'Stonewall' Jackson repulses the Federals at the Battle of McDowell, in the Shenendoah Valley.
1864 Union troops arrive at Spotsylvania Court House to find the Confederates waiting for them.
1886 Atlanta pharmacist John Pemberton invents Coca Cola.
1895 China cedes Taiwan to Japan under Treaty of Shimonoseki.
1904 U.S. Marines land in Tangier, North Africa, to protect the Belgian legation.
1919 The first transatlantic flight by a navy seaplane takes-off.
1933 Mahatma Gandhi—actual name Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi—begins a hunger strike to protest British oppression in India.
1940 German commandos in Dutch uniforms cross the Dutch border to hold bridges for the advancing German army.
1942 The Battle of the Coral Sea between the Japanese Navy and the U.S. Navy ends.
1945 The final surrender of German forces is celebrated as VE (Victory Europe) day.
1952 Allied fighter-bombers stage the largest raid of the war on North Korea.
1958 President Dwight Eisenhower orders the National Guard out of Little Rock as Ernest Green becomes the first black to graduate from an Arkansas public school.
1967 Boxer Muhammad Ali is indicted for refusing induction in U.S. Army.
1984 The Soviet Union announces it will not participate in Summer Olympics planned for Los Angeles.
1995 Jacques Chirac is elected president of France.
Born on May 8
1668 Alain Rene Lesage, French writer (The Adventures of Gil Blas, Turcaret).
1753 Miguel Hidalgo, Mexican nationalist.
1828 Jean Henri Dunant, Swiss philanthropist, founder of the Red Cross and YMCA, first recipient (jointly) of the Nobel Peace Prize.
1829 Louis Moreau Gottschalk, American pianist.
1884 Harry S. Truman, 33rd President of the United States (1945-1953).
1895 Edmund Wilson, American critic and essayist.
1906 Roberto Rossellini, Italian film director.
1910 Mary Lou Williams, jazz pianist and composer.
1920 Sloan Wilson, American author (The man in the Gray Flannel Suit, A Summer Place).
1928 Theodore Sorensen, advisor to John F. Kennedy.
1930 Gary Snyder, beat poet.
1937 Thomas Pynchon, novelist (Gravity's Rainbow).
1940 Peter Benchley, novelist (Jaws, The Deep).
1952 Beth Henley, Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright (Crimes of the Heart).

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#40 Re: On This Day

Post by Cruncher Pete » Tue May 09, 2017 12:14 pm

Today in History May 9

1502 Christopher Columbus leaves Spain on his final trip to the New World.
1754 The first newspaper cartoon in America appears.
1813 U.S. troops under William Henry Harrison take Fort Meigs from British and Canadian troops.
1864 Union General John Sedgwick is shot and killed by a Confederate sharpshooter during fighting at Spotsylvania. His last words are: "They couldn't hit an elephant at this dist--"
1859 Threatened by the advancing French army, the Austrian army retreats across the River Sesia in Italy.
1915 German and French forces fight the Battle of Artois.
1926 Explorers Richard Byrd and Floyd Bennett make the first flight over the North Pole.
1936 Fascist Italy captures the city of Addis Abba, Ethiopia and annexes the country.
1941 The German submarine U-110 is captured at sea along with its Enigma machine by the Royal Navy.
1946 King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy abdicates his throne and is replaced by Umberto I.
1962 A laser beam is successfully bounced off the moon for the first time.
1974 The House Judiciary Committee begins formal hearings on Nixon impeachment.
Born on May 9
1800 John Brown, abolitionist.
1844 Belle Boyd, Confederate spy.
1860 James Mathew Barrie, writer (Peter Pan, The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up).
1873 Howard Carter, British archaeologist.
1882 Henry J. Kaiser, shipbuilder.
1906 Eleanor Estes, children's author.
1921 Mona van Duyn, American poet laureate.
1934 Alan Bennett, British playwright and screenwriter (The Madness of King George III).
1936 Albert Finney, British actor (Murder on the Orient Express, Tom Jones).

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